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Managing projects in creative industries: a compromise between artistic and project management values est paru dans Creative Industries Jounal.

Résumé. For about the last ten years, the creative industries have been structuring themselves around projects; this is called projectification. With this research, we study the tension between artistic and project management values and compromises in projects in creative industries. Drawing on the Making Projects Critical approach, we used the Economies of Worth framework to analyze the results of an instrumental multiple case study of creative industries. We undertook semi-structured interviews with creative workers, art directors and project managers of small advertising agencies. This article highlights compromise between artistic and project management values as a condition for the viability of projects in creative industries. Our conclusion is that compromise is attainable if project managers focus not only on instrumental project management principles but also on the satisfaction and daily support of creative workers, and an educational-type relationship with customers. Given the tension between creative and project management values, achieving a compromise is a condition for the viability of projects in creative industries.

Pour plus de détails sur cet article de Julie Bérubé et de Jacques-Bernard Gauthier, je vous invite à suivre le lien suivant :
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/17510694.2021.1979278

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Un financement CRSH-SIC pour Julie Bérubé et Jacques-Bernard Gauthier : Conciliation des valeurs artistiques et entrepreneurials en contexte de pandémie COVID19.


En 2017, Julie Bérubé et Jacques-Bernard Gauthier ont mené une enquête par entrevues afin de documenter les tensions de valeur que vivent les artistes professionnels en mettant particulièrement l’accent sur la conciliation des valeurs entrepreneuriales et artistiques. Les résultats de cette enquête ont été diffusés à l’aide de différents médiums dont tout récemment lors des congrès 2021 de l’association canadienne de sociologie et de l’European Academy of Management (EURAM). Le contexte sociosanitaire actuelle touche durement les industries culturelles. Dès lors qu’est-ce que la pandémie COVID19 est venue changer quant aux stratégies empruntées par les artistes professionnels afin de concilier les valeurs artistiques et entrepreneuriales? Voilà ce que le financement CRSH-SIC va permettre d’explorer.
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Jacques-Bernard Gauthier collabore à des travaux présentés au congrès 2021 de l'EURAM qui se tient les 16, 17 et 18 juin 2021.

A problematization exercise to explore the perpetuation of psychological distress among hospital nurses
(Nicole Jacob, Jacques-Bernard Gauthier et isabelle St-Pierre)

Résumé :

Problem. Psychological distress among hospital nurses, an ongoing problem that has lasted for nearly half a century despite extensive research on the topic, has negative consequences for the nurses who experience it, can pose a danger to patient safety in addition to causing increased costs to the healthcare system. Literature review. The scientific literature is rich with results outlining “causes” pertaining to nurses’ psychological distress, namely with measurable constructs related to the issue, but is silent on its perpetuation. In connection with the day-to-day work of nurses, a mapping of these “causes” revealed four main reasons – or “core ideas” – which contribute to the problem: working conditions, professional relationships, workplace support, and nurses’ personal characteristics. A defragmentation then made it possible to reorganize these core ideas in a different way and, in so doing, highlighted three reasoning patterns that may contribute to the perpetuation of psychological distress among hospital nurses: a tradition of power, a tradition of covert violence, and a tradition of tensions arising from conflicting values. Within these reasoning patterns are social practices that both derive from them as much as maintain them. Objective. This problematization exercise aims at constructing a research question that contrast with a tradition of a quarter of a century of research on psychological distress in hospitals nurses. Prospective contributions. An awareness of social practices that contribute to perpetuation of psychological distress among hospital nurses.

Pour plus de détails sur le programme de l'EURAM consultez le lien suivant :
https://www.xcdsystem.com/euram/program/Ccy4JoJ/index.cfm?pgid=2232



Management Research in a Capitalist Society from a Justification Theory Perspective
(Julie Bérubé et Jacques-Bernard Gauthier)

Résumé :

The framework presented in Boltanski and Thévenot (1991, 2006) On Justification: Economies of Worth (EW) celebrates its thirtieth anniversary in 2021. This theoretical framework is relevant for studying situations where different value systems meet, creating a tension that can be resolved through compromise. The framework is used in various fields including management. We reviewed empirical publications in the field of management that have used this framework in order to obtain a response to this question: How have researchers integrated the sociohistorical context (hypermodernity/new spirit of capitalism) as a background for their analyses mobilizing the EW framework? Our conclusion is that the authors generally do not take into account the context of the sociohistorical era in which the research took place when analyzing tensions and compromises with the EW framework. We were therefore interested in exploring the influence of capitalism as a sociohistorical era on the management of the tensions between Boltanski and Thévenot’s worlds. To achieve this research objective, we chose a sector characterized by value tensions: the cultural industries, and specifically the visual arts sector. In 2017, we conducted a qualitative study of professional visual artists to understand how they manage the tension between the artistic and monetary imperatives. We conducted a total of 50 semi-structured interviews with professional visual artists. Our results show that artists are in fact dealing with a tension between the artistic and monetary imperatives, or between the inspired and the market worlds, in Boltanski and Thévenot’s terms. To manage this tension, artists either reach a compromise between these two worlds or reject the market world in favor of the inspired world. In both situations, our analyses reveal a domination of the market world induced by the principles of the capitalist sociohistorical era. This conclusion invites researchers to include this reflection when focusing on the theme of the 21st EURAM Conference: Reshaping capitalism for a sustainable world.

Pour plus de détails sur le programme de l'EURAM consultez le lien suivant :
https://www.xcdsystem.com/euram/program/Ccy4JoJ/index.cfm?pgid=2232
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Jacques-Bernard Gauthier, co-auteur de travaux présentés au congrès 2021 de la Société canadienne de sociologie qui se tient du 31 mai au 4 juin 2021.

Professional artists located outside the Canadian poles of creativity: a study of their practices under the lens of the pragmatic sociology of critique
(Julie Bérubé et Jacques-Bernard Gauthier)

Résumé :

Over the past decade, the creative and cultural industries have grown very rapidly (Bridgstock, 2013) and researchers identified that professional artists are struggling with a tension between the artistic and commercial imperatives (Hausmann and Heinze, 2016). Research studying this tension focuses on poles of creativity (e.g. New York, Montréal, Toronto) and shows the presence of politics to create, with the artists, a structure composed of investment formulas to ease this tension. For example, the city of Toronto’s governance system implements a structure constituted of cultural municipal policies, social and cultural programs and cultural institutions (Goldberg-Miller, 2015). This research focuses on the case of professional artists located outside the Canadian poles of creativity. The tension between the artistic and commercial imperatives is described as a tension between the inspired and market worlds of Boltanski and Thévenot’s (1991; 2006) On Justification theory. In the Canadian poles of creativity, like the case of the city of Toronto, politics represented by the civic world of Boltanski and Thévenot help manage this tension. The results of 50 semi-structured interviews with professional artists outside of the Canadian poles of creativity, point to a lower implication of politics in the cultural industries. In order to manage the tension between artistic and commercial imperatives, these artists are developing individual practices (development of new skills and adaptation art forms) and collective practices (professional and personal networking). These individual and collective investment formulas compensate for the low level involvement of politics in creating a structure in the cultural industries. Versatility, adaptability and networking relate to Boltanski and Chiappelo (2007; 2011)s projective world. Thus, to manage the tension between the inspired and market worlds, we identify the presence of the projective world in the case of professional artists outside the Canadian poles of creativity.

Pour plus de détails consultez le lien suivant :
https://www.csa-scs.ca/conference/paper/professional-artists-located-outside-the-canadian-poles-of-creativity-a-study-of-their-practices-under-the-lens-of-the-pragmatic-sociology-of-critique/

Equity, Diversity and Inclusion in Cultural Industries: The Role of Cultural Organizations
(Julie Bérubé, Vivek Venkatesh, Jacques-Bernard Gauthier, Maud Loranger et Léah Snider)

Résumé :

According to Florida (2014), the creative and cultural industries should not be affected by equity, diversity and inclusion (EDI) issues. The competitive advantage of individuals lies in their talent and creativity and is not dependent on, for example, ethnicity, gender or social class. However, the results of scientific research point rather towards systemic discrimination within these industries, exacerbated by the policies put in place to promote them. Current research shows discrimination based on gender and ethnicity, but also on physical ability, age and location. Based on these observations, Eikhof (2017) proposes a theoretical approach in which she studies, on the one hand, individuals working in the creative and cultural industries and the decisions they make and, on the other hand, the decision makers and the context in which they make EDI-related decisions. Nevertheless, Eikhof (2017) does not take into account the role of cultural organizations. But, Acosta (2016) notes their importance in shaping policies specific to cultural industries. The objective of this research is therefore to identify the role of cultural organizations in EDI issues within the cultural industries. To this end, we are currently conducting semi-structured interviews with artists and cultural organizations in four Canadian cities (we are aiming for a total of 60 interviews). These results are analyzed using Boltanski and Thévenot (1991; 2006)’s theoretical framework On justification. Respondents responses are associated with the different worlds of Boltanski and Thévenot (1991; 2006) in order to identify tensions and the formation of compromises. Based on the empirical data collected on the tensions and compromises, we will propose ways in which cultural organizations can work towards equity, diversity and inclusion in the cultural industries.

Cette communication s’appuie sur des recherches financées par le Conseil de recherches en sciences humaines (CRSH). Pour plus de détails consultez le lien suivant : https://www.csa-scs.ca/conference/paper/equity-diversity-and-inclusion-in-cultural-industries-the-role-of-cultural-organizations/
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De la théorie de la structuration aux Économies de la grandeur : un rapprochement est-il possible?


Dans le cadre du colloque "Théorie de la justification : 30 ans de retombées dans les recherches du champ du management", Julie Bérubé et Jacques-Bernard Gauthier s'intéressent à un rapprochement possible entre la théorie de la structuration de Giddens et la théorie de la justification de Boltanski et Thévenot. Ce rapprochement est d'autant plus justifié puisque pour Pfister (2001), l’appareillage conceptuel de B&T est une sorte de « boîte noire » dans laquelle on place deux mondes et de laquelle ressort un compromis. En y alliant la théorie de la structuration ceci permet de comprendre le compromis grâce à la co-construction entre les pratiques et le structurel. La combinaison de ces deux approches théoriques permettrait donc de jeter un regard conceptuel nouveau aux recherches empiriques en management arrimant à la fois l’accord et le désaccord et les différents niveaux en jeu.

Cette communication s'appuie sur des recherches financées par le CRSH. Pour plus de détails sur le colloque et la présentation de Julie Bérubé et de Jacques-Bernard Gauthier consulté le lien suivant :
https://www.acfas.ca/evenements/congres/programme/88/400/443/c
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Julie Bérubé et Jacques-Bernard Gauthier coéditent, à titre de rédacteurs invités, le tout dernier numéro de la Revue internationale P.M.E.

En ligne depuis la fin de janvier 2020, le numéro 3-4 du volume 33 de la Revue internationale P.M.E. aborde la question de l’entrepreneuriat en marge des masses dans les industries créatives et culturelles sous 3 angles : 1) l’entrepreneuriat hors des métropoles créatives dans les industries créatives et culturelles, 2) l’entrepreneuriat chez les minorités dans les industries créatives et culturelles et, enfin, 3) l’entrepreneuriat marginal (underground) dans les industries créatives et culturelles. Pour plus de détails sur les articles composant ledit numéro spécial, je vous invite à consulter la page suivante : https://www.erudit.org/fr/revues/ipme/2020-v33-n3-4-ipme05797/
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Cooperation Strategies for a Business Ecosystem : The Case of Scientific Periodicals or How a Scientific and Commercial Activity Survive Turbulence

Depuis quelques années, Michelle Harbour et Jacques-Bernard Gauthier s’attardent aux périodiques scientifiques comme artefact résultant de pratiques sociales. L’accent est mis sur la dyade : chercheur et périodiques scientifiques. Dans ce papier et dans cette présentation, Michelle Habour et Jacques-Bernard Gauthier ont abordé le périodique scientifique en tant qu’activité commerciale : son écosystème d'affaires et les stratégies de coopération animant ce dernier.

Les travaux de Michelle Harbour et Jacques-Bernard Gauthier ont été présentés le 4 décembre 2020 dans la section "SIG13" du congrès de l'EURAM 2020 consacrée au management stratégique.
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Une Subvention de développement Savoir : Équité, diversité et inclusion dans les industries culturelles: quel est le rôle des organismes culturels?

Le Conseil de recherches en sciences humaines du Canada a accordé à Julie Bérubé (chercheure principale), Jacques-Bernard Gauthier (cochercheur) et Vivek Venkatesh (cochercheur et professeur à l'Université Concordia) une subvention en vue de la réalisation d'un projet de recherche poursuivant les 5 objectifs spécifiques suivants : (i) documenter les pratiques et les perceptions relatives aux questions d’équité, de diversité et d'inclusion chez les artistes; (ii) documenter les pratiques et les perceptions relatives aux questions d’équité, de diversité et d'inclusion chez les organismes culturels; (iii) analyser le compromis entre les systèmes de valeurs des artistes et des organismes culturels face aux questions relatives à l'équité, la diversité et l'inclusion; (iv) explorer la complémentarité entre la théorie de la structuration de Giddens et la théorie de la justification de Boltanski et Thévenot afin de jeter un regard différent sur les pratiques (décrites en i et ii) et sur le compromis (décrit en iii) et enfin (v) outiller les publics cibles (organismes culturels) à l’élaboration et la mise en œuvre de politiques, d’ateliers de formation et de matériel d’accompagnement en équité, diversité et inclusion pour les artistes et les employés œuvrant au sein des organismes.

Les contributions de Jacques-Bernard Gauthier à ce projet de recherche s'arriment aux défis à relever sur le plan, d'une part, méthodologique quant à l'étude des pratiques, et, d'autre part, théorique quant à complémentarité potentielle entre Giddens et Boltanski et Thévenot.
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COOPETITION IN PROJECTS IN CULTURAL INDUSTRIES est paru dans The Journal of Modern Project Management.

Résumé. This paper addresses the following question: what happens when people pool their resources in a project but also compete for market share? This question is at the heart of project management in the cultural industries. To be viable, these projects must find a compromise between competition and collaboration. To conceptualize this compromise, we used the theoretical framework On Justification by Boltanski and Thévenot (2006). These authors represented society with six independent worlds, and they explored compromises between the various worlds. We associate competition with the market world and collaboration with the civic world. Boltanski and Thévenot (2006) did not find a figure of compromise between these two worlds, but we suggest that coopetition is a viable form of compromise. We undertook 50 semi-structured interviews with professional visual artists to empirically support our assumptions that (1) coopetition is the answer to our initial question, and (2) it is the figure of compromise between the market and civic worlds. Our findings contribute to the literature on coopetition in project management by presenting three typical cases of coopetition in projects in cultural industries: artwork creation projects, art exhibition projects in private galleries, and art exhibition projects in cooperative galleries. We also contribute to the literature on Boltanski and Thévenot (2006) theoretical framework by exploring a new figure of compromise.

Pour plus de détails sur cet article de Julie Bérubé et de Jacques-Bernard Gauthier, je vous invite à suivre le lien suivant :
https://www.journalmodernpm.com/index.php/jmpm/article/view/525