SSHRC-SIG funding for Julie Bérubé and Jacques-Bernard Gauthier : Reconciling Artistic and Entrepreneurial Values in the Context of the COVID 19
In 2017, Julie Bérubé and Jacques-Bernard Gauthier conducted interviews to document the value tensions experienced by professional artists with a particular focus on the reconciliation of entrepreneurial and artistic values. The results have been disseminated through various media, most recently at the 2021 Canadian Sociological Association and European Academy of Management (EURAM) conferences. The current health and social context is affecting the cultural industries. What has the COVID19 pandemic changed in terms of the strategies used by professional artists to reconcile artistic and entrepreneurial values? This is what SSHRC-SIG funding will explore.
Jacques-Bernard Gauthier is a co-author of papers presented at the EURAM 2021 Congress on June 16, 17 and 18, 2021.
A problematization exercise to explore the perpetuation of psychological distress among hospital nurses (Nicole Jacob, Jacques-Bernard Gauthier et isabelle St-Pierre)
Problem. Psychological distress among hospital nurses, an ongoing problem that has lasted for nearly half a century despite extensive research on the topic, has negative consequences for the nurses who experience it, can pose a danger to patient safety in addition to causing increased costs to the healthcare system. Literature review. The scientific literature is rich with results outlining “causes” pertaining to nurses’ psychological distress, namely with measurable constructs related to the issue, but is silent on its perpetuation. In connection with the day-to-day work of nurses, a mapping of these “causes” revealed four main reasons – or “core ideas” – which contribute to the problem: working conditions, professional relationships, workplace support, and nurses’ personal characteristics. A defragmentation then made it possible to reorganize these core ideas in a different way and, in so doing, highlighted three reasoning patterns that may contribute to the perpetuation of psychological distress among hospital nurses: a tradition of power, a tradition of covert violence, and a tradition of tensions arising from conflicting values. Within these reasoning patterns are social practices that both derive from them as much as maintain them. Objective. This problematization exercise aims at constructing a research question that contrast with a tradition of a quarter of a century of research on psychological distress in hospitals nurses. Prospective contributions. An awareness of social practices that contribute to perpetuation of psychological distress among hospital nurses.
For more details on the EURAM program see the following link: https://www.xcdsystem.com/euram/program/Ccy4JoJ/index.cfm?pgid=2232
Management Research in a Capitalist Society from a Justification Theory Perspective (Julie Bérubé et Jacques-Bernard Gauthier)
The framework presented in Boltanski and Thévenot (1991, 2006) On Justification: Economies of Worth (EW) celebrates its thirtieth anniversary in 2021. This theoretical framework is relevant for studying situations where different value systems meet, creating a tension that can be resolved through compromise. The framework is used in various fields including management. We reviewed empirical publications in the field of management that have used this framework in order to obtain a response to this question: How have researchers integrated the sociohistorical context (hypermodernity/new spirit of capitalism) as a background for their analyses mobilizing the EW framework? Our conclusion is that the authors generally do not take into account the context of the sociohistorical era in which the research took place when analyzing tensions and compromises with the EW framework. We were therefore interested in exploring the influence of capitalism as a sociohistorical era on the management of the tensions between Boltanski and Thévenot’s worlds. To achieve this research objective, we chose a sector characterized by value tensions: the cultural industries, and specifically the visual arts sector. In 2017, we conducted a qualitative study of professional visual artists to understand how they manage the tension between the artistic and monetary imperatives. We conducted a total of 50 semi-structured interviews with professional visual artists. Our results show that artists are in fact dealing with a tension between the artistic and monetary imperatives, or between the inspired and the market worlds, in Boltanski and Thévenot’s terms. To manage this tension, artists either reach a compromise between these two worlds or reject the market world in favor of the inspired world. In both situations, our analyses reveal a domination of the market world induced by the principles of the capitalist sociohistorical era. This conclusion invites researchers to include this reflection when focusing on the theme of the 21st EURAM Conference: Reshaping capitalism for a sustainable world.
For more details on the EURAM program see the following link: https://www.xcdsystem.com/euram/program/Ccy4JoJ/index.cfm?pgid=2232
Jacques-Bernard Gauthier, co-author of papers presented at the 2021 Canadian Sociological Association Conference, May 31-June 4, 2021.
Professional artists located outside the Canadian poles of creativity: a study of their practices under the lens of the pragmatic sociology of critique (Julie Bérubé et Jacques-Bernard Gauthier)
Over the past decade, the creative and cultural industries have grown very rapidly (Bridgstock, 2013) and researchers identified that professional artists are struggling with a tension between the artistic and commercial imperatives (Hausmann and Heinze, 2016). Research studying this tension focuses on poles of creativity (e.g. New York, Montréal, Toronto) and shows the presence of politics to create, with the artists, a structure composed of investment formulas to ease this tension. For example, the city of Toronto’s governance system implements a structure constituted of cultural municipal policies, social and cultural programs and cultural institutions (Goldberg-Miller, 2015). This research focuses on the case of professional artists located outside the Canadian poles of creativity. The tension between the artistic and commercial imperatives is described as a tension between the inspired and market worlds of Boltanski and Thévenot’s (1991; 2006) On Justification theory. In the Canadian poles of creativity, like the case of the city of Toronto, politics represented by the civic world of Boltanski and Thévenot help manage this tension. The results of 50 semi-structured interviews with professional artists outside of the Canadian poles of creativity, point to a lower implication of politics in the cultural industries. In order to manage the tension between artistic and commercial imperatives, these artists are developing individual practices (development of new skills and adaptation art forms) and collective practices (professional and personal networking). These individual and collective investment formulas compensate for the low level involvement of politics in creating a structure in the cultural industries. Versatility, adaptability and networking relate to Boltanski and Chiappelo (2007; 2011)s projective world. Thus, to manage the tension between the inspired and market worlds, we identify the presence of the projective world in the case of professional artists outside the Canadian poles of creativity.
For more details see the following link: https://www.csa-scs.ca/conference/paper/professional-artists-located-outside-the-canadian-poles-of-creativity-a-study-of-their-practices-under-the-lens-of-the-pragmatic-sociology-of-critique/
Equity, Diversity and Inclusion in Cultural Industries: The Role of Cultural Organizations (Julie Bérubé, Vivek Venkatesh, Jacques-Bernard Gauthier, Maud Loranger et Léah Snider)
According to Florida (2014), the creative and cultural industries should not be affected by equity, diversity and inclusion (EDI) issues. The competitive advantage of individuals lies in their talent and creativity and is not dependent on, for example, ethnicity, gender or social class. However, the results of scientific research point rather towards systemic discrimination within these industries, exacerbated by the policies put in place to promote them. Current research shows discrimination based on gender and ethnicity, but also on physical ability, age and location. Based on these observations, Eikhof (2017) proposes a theoretical approach in which she studies, on the one hand, individuals working in the creative and cultural industries and the decisions they make and, on the other hand, the decision makers and the context in which they make EDI-related decisions. Nevertheless, Eikhof (2017) does not take into account the role of cultural organizations. But, Acosta (2016) notes their importance in shaping policies specific to cultural industries. The objective of this research is therefore to identify the role of cultural organizations in EDI issues within the cultural industries. To this end, we are currently conducting semi-structured interviews with artists and cultural organizations in four Canadian cities (we are aiming for a total of 60 interviews). These results are analyzed using Boltanski and Thévenot (1991; 2006)’s theoretical framework On justification. Respondents responses are associated with the different worlds of Boltanski and Thévenot (1991; 2006) in order to identify tensions and the formation of compromises. Based on the empirical data collected on the tensions and compromises, we will propose ways in which cultural organizations can work towards equity, diversity and inclusion in the cultural industries.
This paper is based on research funded by SSHRC. Pour plus de détails consultez le lien suivant : https://www.csa-scs.ca/conference/paper/equity-diversity-and-inclusion-in-cultural-industries-the-role-of-cultural-organizations/
From Structuration Theory to Economies of Worth: Is a rapprochement possible?
In the context of the symposium "Théorie de la justification : 30 ans de retombées dans les recherches du champ du management" (Theory of justification : 30 years of repercussions in management research), Julie Bérubé and Jacques-Bernard Gauthier are interested in a possible rapprochement between Giddens' structuration theory and Boltanski and Thévenot's theory of justification. This comparison is all the more justified since, for Pfister (2001), the conceptual apparatus of B&T is a sort of "black box" in which two worlds are placed and from which a compromise emerges. Combining it with structuration theory allows us to understand the compromise thanks to the co-construction between the practices and the structural. The combination of these two theoretical approaches would therefore allow us to take a new conceptual look at empirical research in management, bringing together agreement and disagreement and the different levels at play.
This conference is based on research funded by SSHRC. For more details on the conference and the presentation of Julie Bérubé and Jacques-Bernard Gauthier, please consult the following link: https://www.acfas.ca/evenements/congres/programme/88/400/443/c
Julie Bérubé and Jacques-Bernard Gauthier co-edit, as guest editors, the latest issue of the Revue internationale P.M.E.
On line since the end of January 2020, issue 3-4 of volume 33 of the Revue international P.M.E. addresses the issue of entrepreneurship on the margins of the masses in the creative and cultural industries from 3 angles: 1) entrepreneurship outside of creative metropolises in the creative and cultural industries, 2) entrepreneurship among minorities in the creative and cultural industries and, finally, 3) entrepreneurship in marge of mainstream in the creative and cultural industries. For more details on the articles that make up this special issue, I invite you to consult the following page: https://www.erudit.org/fr/revues/ipme/2020-v33-n3-4-ipme05797/
In recent years, Michelle Harbour and Jacques-Bernard Gauthier have focused on scientific periodicals as artifacts resulting from social practices. The focus is on the dyad: researcher and scientific periodicals. In this paper and presentation, Michelle Habour and Jacques-Bernard Gauthier discuss the scientific periodical as a business activity: its business ecosystem and the cooperative strategies animating it.
The work of Michelle Harbour and Jacques-Bernard Gauthier was presented on December 4, 2020 in the "SIG13" section of the EURAM 2020 congress devoted to strategic management.
An Insight Development Grant: Equity, diversity and inclusion in cultural industries: what is the role of cultural organizations?
The Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada has awarded Julie Bérubé (principal investigator), Jacques-Bernard Gauthier (co-investigator) and Vivek Venkatesh (co-investigator and professor at Concordia University) a grant to carry out a research project with the following 5 specific objectives: (i) to document practices and perceptions of equity, diversity and inclusion issues among artists; (ii) to document practices and perceptions of equity, diversity and inclusion issues among cultural organizations; (iii) to analyze the trade-off between the value systems of artists and cultural organizations in relation to equity, diversity and inclusion issues; (iv) explore the complementarity between Giddens' structuring theory and Boltanski and Thévenot's justification theory in order to take a different look at the practices (described in i and ii) and the trade-off (described in iii); and finally (v) equip target groups (cultural organizations) to develop and implement policies, training workshops and support materials on equity, diversity and inclusion for artists and employees working in organizations.
Jacques-Bernard Gauthier's contributions to this research project are in keeping with the challenges to be met, on the one hand, methodologically in terms of the study of practices, and, on the other hand, theoretically in terms of the potential complementarity between Giddens and Boltanski and Thévenot.
Abstract. This paper addresses the following question: what happens when people pool their resources in a project but also compete for market share? This question is at the heart of project management in the cultural industries. To be viable, these projects must find a compromise between competition and collaboration. To conceptualize this compromise, we used the theoretical framework On Justification by Boltanski and Thévenot (2006). These authors represented society with six independent worlds, and they explored compromises between the various worlds. We associate competition with the market world and collaboration with the civic world. Boltanski and Thévenot (2006) did not find a figure of compromise between these two worlds, but we suggest that coopetition is a viable form of compromise. We undertook 50 semi-structured interviews with professional visual artists to empirically support our assumptions that (1) coopetition is the answer to our initial question, and (2) it is the figure of compromise between the market and civic worlds. Our findings contribute to the literature on coopetition in project management by presenting three typical cases of coopetition in projects in cultural industries: artwork creation projects, art exhibition projects in private galleries, and art exhibition projects in cooperative galleries. We also contribute to the literature on Boltanski and Thévenot (2006) theoretical framework by exploring a new figure of compromise.
For more details about this article by Julie Bérubé and Jacques-Bernard Gauthier, I invite you to follow the following link : https://www.journalmodernpm.com/index.php/jmpm/article/view/525