PEER-REVIEWED CONFERENCES

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Harbour, M. et Gauthier, J.B. (2020, Décembre).  Cooperation Strategies for a Business Ecosystem : The Case of Scientific Periodicals or How a Scientific and Commercial Activity Survive Turbulence, EURAM 2020

Résumé:

The communication of scientific knowledge through the publications of scientific periodicals is organized in a complex and dynamic business ecosystem where convergent and divergent objectives coexist. The purpose of this paper is to study the cooperation strategies that ensure the maintenance and development of this business ecosystem. Our results show the coexistence of three cooperation strategies: homeostatic cooperation, pressure cooperation and adaptation cooperation. Our study provides two main contributions. First, we now have a new perspective the strategic dynamics of this business ecosystem. We have seen that the publication of scientific periodicals is an expanding community business ecosystem, through the active role of the actors in the different strata of this ecosystem. We also found that these actors can act on different cooperation strategies simultaneously. Second, the identification of three types of cooperation strategies mobilized by stakeholders is also an important contribution to the literature on business ecosystems and to the literature on cooperation strategies.
Jacob, N., St-Pierre, I. et Gauthier, J.B. (2019, Mai).  La détresse psychologique des infirmières: une problématique qui perdure depuis près d’un demi-siècle. Résumé et communication - 87e congrès de l’ACFAS, Gatineau, Canada.

Abstract:

Problématique : depuis plus d’un demi-siècle, la problématique de la détresse psychologique des infirmières perdure, et ce, malgré les nombreuses recherches sur le sujet et les initiatives mises en place. Cette détresse a des conséquences négatives tant sur les infirmières que sur les patients et les milieux de travail. Recension : vingt-sept articles ont permis de mettre en lumière que les causes de la détresse psychologique des infirmières s’articulent autour de trois pôles principaux : la surcharge de travail autre que le soin, les relations de travail malsaines et le manque de soutien. Bien que ces résultats permettent une compréhension importante du phénomène, celle-ci est limitée et semble, dans bien des cas, responsabiliser l’infirmière pour ce qui lui arrive. Ceci aurait pour conséquences d’axer, sur l’infirmière, la plupart des stratégies ayant pour but d'enrayer la détresse psychologique. Méthodologie : Nous argumentons que puisque la problématique perdure, il est nécessaire d’explorer celle-ci sous un nouvel angle. Nous suggérons d’utiliser les travaux de Foucault (pouvoir disciplinaire), Boltanski et Thévenot (mondes) et Bourdieu (violence symbolique) pour permettre ce nouveau regard. Contribution : ce nouveau regard pourrait faire émerger d’autres types d’interventions qui sauraient finalement, nous l’espérons, réduire la prévalence de la détresse psychologique chez les infirmières.
Bérubé, J. et Gauthier, J.B. (2019, Mai).  Rigueur et pertinence en recherche en gestion de projet : En quête de compromis. Résumé et communication - Colloque sur Les tensions entre la rigueur et la pertinence en gestion de projet sous la loupe des fondements de la recherche (87e congrès de l’ACFAS), Gatineau, Canada.

Abstract of Rigor and Relevance in Project Management Research: In Search of Compromise (in french - no translations available):

Project management research is driven by value systems that, when they are in conflict, create tensions, such as rigor and relevance. The balance or compromise between these two poles is necessary for the academic and practical evolution of this field. We propose to study this dichotomy using the theoretical framework of Boltanski and Thévenot's (1991). They conceive of 6 worlds with distinct value systems, as well as the tensions inherent in the meeting of these worlds and the compromises allowing for their healthy cohabitation. Based on research on project management in the creative industries with advertising agencies or professional artists, we explore the idea that the compromise between rigor and relevance is not universal or prescriptive. It is not disembodied in the value systems of researchers and participants. Indeed, since the trade-off is situated spatially and temporally, according to the contexts and values of the participants, different worlds of Boltanski and Thévenot (1991) will have to temporarily cohabit in order to achieve the right balance between rigor and relevance. As Cunliffe et al.(2013) point out during the course of the research, much is at stake at the interface (hyphen-spaces) between researchers and participants. Among these are the possible and temporary trade-offs between rigor and relevance.
Gauthier, J.B. et Harbour, M. (2019, Mai).  Reconnaissance et honneur à l'ère de l'indice d'impact : la structuration du champ du management sous la loupe. Résumé et communication - 87e congrès de l’ACFAS, Gatineau, Canada.

Abstract of Recognition and honour in the age of the impact index: the structuring of the management field under the magnifying glass (in french - no translations available):

"Take Your Place Among the Great" is the slogan of a campaign by the commercial publisher of scientific periodicals, Elsevier. The campaign targeted researchers. "Take Your Place Among The Great" is made from the same materials that Nike used to develop its "Are Your Dreams Crazy Enough?" ad. They mobilize symbols that evoke positive emotions for the target population. "Take Your Place Among the Great" suggests that Elsevier knows what motivates researchers (recognition, honor) and tells them that a publication in their periodicals represents added value for them. This quest for recognition combined with the explosion in the number of scientists, academic disciplines and journals is putting peer review to the test. This is where bibliometric indices take over (Strengers, 2013).

The originality of our presentation lies on two-level analysis. The first concerns the dialectical relations between the impact index, the symbolic and the researchers' quest for recognition. The second level of exploration relates to the "symbiotic" relationship between the field of science and the field of business. Science is composed of several disciplinary fields; this is why our presentation focuses on the structuring of a single field : management.
Bérubé, J. et Gauthier, J.B. (2019, Mai).  Compromis entre les valeurs artistiques et entrepreneuriales des artistes entrepreneurs œuvrant hors des métropoles. Résumé et communication - Colloque sur Compromis entre les valeurs artistiques et entrepreneuriales des artistes entrepreneurs œuvrant hors des métropoles (87e congrès de l’ACFAS), Gatineau, Canada.

Abstract of Compromise between the artistic and entrepreneurial values of artist-entrepreneurs practicing outside of the metropolitans (in french - no translations available):

Artist-entrepreneurs face a tension between their artistic and entrepreneurial values. These values intersect and conflict and a tension emerges. The majority of research on the cultural industries focuses artist-entrepreneurs working in metropolitan areas (New York, Paris, Montreal, etc.). Consequently, we explore how artists-entrepreneurs located outside of metropolitan areas manage to reconcile their artistic and entrepreneurial values without perverting their art, while at the same time achieving a certain economic viability. We use the theoretical framework of Boltanski and Thévenot's (1991) economies of worth to study the tension between artistic and entrepreneurial values and the formation of compromises between these values. Boltanski and Thévenot's (1991) conceive of 6 worlds with independent value systems. When the worlds confront each other, a tension is formed and the implementation of a compromise is necessary to resolve it. The data for this research was collected through semi-structured interviews with 50 professional visual artists located outside of metropolitan areas. Characteristics that emerged from the interviews were: 1) an individual approach involving network formation and adaptability, and 2) a collective approach oriented around collaboration. It was then possible to associate values with the different worlds of Boltanski and Thévenot and to show how the compromise between these worlds is formed.
Harbour, M. et Gauthier, J.B. (2019, Mai). Écosystèmes d’affaires et stratégies de coopération. Portrait de la dynamique de la publication des périodiques scientifiques. Full paper and presentation - ASAC 2019, St. Catharines, Canada.

Abstract of Business ecosystems and cooperation strategies. Portrait of the dynamics of the publication of scientific periodicals (in french - no translations available):

The purpose of this paper is to study cooperation strategies that ensure the maintenance and development of a business ecosystem where convergent and divergent objectives coexist. Our results showed that the publication of scientific periodicals is part of a growing community business ecosystem in which strategies of homeostatic cooperation, pressure and adaptation coexist. Our study contributes to the understanding of ecosystems from a macro perspective, i.e. commercial activity. In doing so, it has made it possible to better understand the mechanisms of cooperation within the ecosystem of scientific periodical publishing, which presents itself as an expanding community through the active role of the actors in the different strata of this ecosystem. The identification of three types of cooperation strategies mobilized by stakeholders is also an important contribution to the literature on business ecosystems.
Bérubé, J. & Gauthier, J.B. (2019, May). Coopetition in Projects in Cultural Industries. Full paper and presentation - 4e Conférence International en Gestion de Projet de l'UQTR, Trois-Rivières, Canada.

Abstract:

This paper addresses the following question: what happens when people pool their resources in a project but also compete for market share? This question is at the heart of project management in the cultural industries. To be viable, these projects must find a compromise between competition and collaboration. To conceptualize this compromise, we used the theoretical framework On Justification by Boltanski and Thévenot (2006). These authors represented society with six independent worlds, and they explored compromises between the various worlds. We associate competition with the market world and collaboration with the civic world. Boltanski and Thévenot (2006) did not find a figure of compromise between these two worlds, but we suggest that coopetition is a viable form of compromise. We undertook 50 semi-structured interviews with professional visual artists to empirically support our assumptions that (1) coopetition is the answer to our initial question, and (2) it is the figure of compromise between the market and civic worlds. Our findings contribute to the literature on coopetition in project management by presenting three typical cases of coopetition in projects in cultural industries: artwork creation projects, art exhibition projects in private galleries, and art exhibition projects in cooperative galleries. We also contribute to the literature on Boltanski and Thévenot (2006) theoretical framework by exploring a new figure of compromise.
Paradis, J. & Gauthier, J.B. (2019, January). Health projects examined through the magnifying glass of Lefebvre and Heidegger’s space-time architecture. Full paper and presentation - MPC9. Mälardalen, Sweden.

Abstract:

This paper focus on structuration process of spaces of collaboration between patients and health professionals (what Canguilhem call: colloque singulier). Some authors propose Gidden's Theory to analyze the project structuration. Drawing on Hägestrand's geography, Giddens' structuration theory is, however, limited when it comes to conceptualize all issues surrounding the production of colloque singulier in healthcare project management. This is why this paper examines issues surrounding the structuring of colloque singulier (collaboration space between patients and health professionals) in project management by borrowing the perspectives of Henry Lefebvre and Martin Heidegger on the production of space.
Paradis, J. & Gauthier, J.B. (2018, Juin). Epistemological Foundations of the Objet-À-Projet as a Factor in the Definition of Projects. The Case of Project Management in the Health Services Sector. Full paper and presentation - EURAM2018 - Research Methods & Research, Reykjavik, Islande.

Abstract:
We propose a different reading of the definition of a health services project. The polysemic nature of objet-à-projet, such as health, is not a concern in project management (PM). PMBoK has never included declensions of the epistemological postures of the objet-à-projet within the process of project definition. There exist several streams in PM as well as in medicine. In PM, we must incorporate Making Project Critical (MPC) to the Mainstream. In medicine, that which is naturalist/objectivist is in opposition to that which is normativist/interpretativist. The Mainstream, and that which is naturalist/objectivist, are both functionalist/positivist. The normativist/interpretativist is the source of a proposition which, when considered under MPC, underlines the polysemic nature of the objet-à-projet and the reflexive capacity of individuals to consider the various figures presented by a project according to the epistemological foundations of the objet-à-projet. We propose to integrate this analysis at the initiation process group of PMBoK.
Guay, J. F. et Gauthier, J. B. (2018, Mai).  La transdisciplinarité dans les projets en santé : l’arrimage des pratiques résultant de la dialectique entre les praxis-projet d’intégration et de différenciation.  Résumé et communication - Colloque sur La recherche en management de projet : des approches unidisciplinaires vers des approches multidisciplinaires et transdisciplinaires ? (86e congrès de l’ACFAS), Chicoutimi, Canada.

Abstract of Transdisciplinarity in health projects: stowage of practices coming from the dialectic between praxis-project of integration and differentiation (in french - no translations available):

We examine the stowage of practices in health projects as as dialectical outcomes between integration praxis and differentiation praxis. Building on Stone's theory of structuring, praxis-projects are conditioned by social structures as well as internal structures to individuals. At the same time, these structures are the result of these praxis. Managing a project in community services will allowing us exemplify our conceptual perspective.
Bérubé, J. & Gauthier, J.B. (2017, Mai/Juin).  Creative Organizations: Reaching a Favourable Competitive Positioning in the Creative Market. Full paper and presentation 2017 ASAC conference, Montreal, Canada.

Abstract:
Creative organizations struggle with a tension between creativity and business. This research mobilizes the theory of justification by Boltanski and Thévenot (1991, 2006) to study the competitive position of small advertising agencies in the creative market, which represents the compromise between creativity and business. A total of 35 semi-structured interviews were conducted within 11 small advertising agencies. In order to map the competitive position of these agencies, a multiple correspondence analysis was realized on the interviews’ results. The results of this research suggest that agencies in which creative workers only do creative work and are responsible for the whole creative process get a better competitive positioning on the creative market.
Paradis, J. et Gauthier, J.B. (2017, Mai).  Les pratiques de gestion de projet et les enjeux stratgiques pour la pratique de la pharmacie d’tablissement. Article long et communication - 3e Conférence International en Gestion de Projet de l'UQTR, Trois-Rivières, Canada.

Abstract of Project Management Practices and Strategic Challenges for Hospital Pharmacy Practices (in french - no translations available):

Management must face numerous challenges in health establishments and hospital pharmacies, (HP) are a good example of this. The lack of interest of researchers in questioning pharmacy managers and the status quo of managerial approaches alongside successive reforms justifies our dwelling upon this. Our objective will be reached in three steps. First, we must do an overview of the socio-historical periods in organizational theory (OT), in order to properly situate management within HP. Secondly, with the help of schools of theoretical thought in project management (PM) we will situate PM within HP. Thirdly, we will propose a social theory, structuration theory (ST), as an analytical framework for management and for PM in pharmacies. An analysis of the theoretical notions proposed in articles taken from Canadian Journal of Hospital Pharmacy (Paradis and Gauthier, 2016) reveals that the management of projects in HP, as is the case with the management of institutional pharmacy departments, has the potential to be anchored into modern schools of project management. Gauthier and Ika (2012) associate modern schools of thought in project management to the mainstream. Focusing on operational-technical aspects at the heart of the PM mainstream has taken place to the detriment of the “strategic” aspect of HP practice. We propose an innovative approach that diverges from present orthodoxy: namely, the structurationist perspective. This approach calls upon ST, in which the strategic aspects of practices are considered key elements (Giddens, (1984)), which is why we have focused on this approach.
Bérubé, J. & Gauthier, J.B. (2017, Mai).  Compromise between creative activities and project management activities: a contingency factor. Full paper and presentation - 3e Conférence International en Gestion de Projet de l'UQTR, Trois-Rivières, Canada.

Abstract:
Creative organizations that are characterized by project management struggle with a tension between their creative activities and their project management activities. They must reach a compromise allowing the management of this tension. This research’s objective is to explore this compromise as a contingency factor in the competitive positioning of these organizations in the creative market. Therefore, this research will support existing project management researches on contingency. To do so, we conducted a multiple correspondence analysis with data collected from 35 creative workers, artistic directors and project managers working in 11 advertising agencies. The theoretical framework of justification of Boltanski and Thvenot (1991, 2006) was used to explore the compromise as a contingency factor. This research proposes a practical and a theoretical contribution. On the one hand, it guides creative organizations wanting to modify their competitive positioning based on managing the compromise of the tension between creative activities and project management. On the second hand, it uses an original analysis technique to study the contingency in the management of projects.
Harbour, M. et Gauthier, J.B. (2017, Mai).  Alliances homéostatiques, de pression et de transition : portrait des alliances en réseau structurant le microcosme d’affaires de la publication de périodiques scientifiques. Résumé et communication - Colloque sur la Production et transmission des savoirs scientifiques à l’ère du numérique (85e congrès de l’ACFAS), Montréal, Canada.

Abstract of Homeostatic, pressure and transition alliances: a portrait of network alliances structuring the business microcosm of the publication of scientific periodicals (in french - no translations available):

We analyse the networking alliances of enterprises in two industrial sectors, of institutions, of NGOs and of individuals evolving in the business microcosm of scientific periodical publishing. Our analyses showed the existence of three major structuring alliances: homeostatic alliances, pressure alliances and transition alliances.
Gauthier, J. B. et Bérubé, J. (2016, Mai).  L’axiologie : levier réflexif des tensions à la recherche sur la pratique en gestion de projet.  Résumé et communication - Colloque sur La recherche francophone en management de projet : ses objets de recherche, ses assises épistémologiques et ses démarches méthodologiques (84e congrès de l’ACFAS), Montréal, Canada.

Abstract of Axiology: a basis of reflexivity to study tensions coming from the research on project management practice (in french - no translations available):

Although reflexive practices promote a return to the philosophical foundations that served as a guide during a research project (Creswell, 2013), very little attention is given to axiology (‘what can be subject to a value judgement’ – free translation) (Universalis, 2015). Since the practice of project management is subject to such judgements (Cicmil, 2006), the practitioner-researcher is forced to deal with influences, arising from various value systems, which can turn into tensions. While being torn between his values as a practitioner and as a researcher, the practitioner-researcher, while interpreting the practices of participants, also confronts his own value system with those of the participants. Boltanski and Thévenot (1991; 2006)’s theory of justification allows us to understand how tensions emanate from the presence of distinct value systems. They represent society with six distinct orders of worth, each having their own proper characteristics. We maintain that a practitioner-researcher lives with tensions emanating from the meeting of orders of worth that come on the one hand from research and on the other hand from practice. : This research contributes to the literature in two ways. First, we set out the two orders of methodological reflexivity (derived from Alvesson and Skoldberg (2009) and from Cunliffe (2003)) and situate axiological tensions within them. Secondly, drawing upon the theory of justification, we theorize these tensions and how they can enhance second-order reflexivity.
Rainville, D., Davilla-Gomez, A.-M. et Gauthier, J.B. (2016, Mai).  Les conditions d’intégration d’une équipe de projet de développement international. Résumé et communication - 84e Congrès de l’ACFAS, Montréal, Canada.

Abstract of Conditions for the integration of an international development project team (in french - no translations available):

In the course of their communication, the researchers explore the dimension of national cultures as a condition for the integration of members of an international development project team, in like manner as with the disciplinary and organizational dimensions. This exploration bases itself upon case studies as its methodological approach. More precisely, the researchers have focused on the AIME House (a house helping street children in Manilla, the Philippines) as an international development project run by the Virlanie Foundation. Semi-structured interviews as well as sessions for observing the project team took place. The results of this research contribute to the field of Management by affirming that national cultures are an important component in our understanding of the process of integrating the participants in an international development project. Finally, the authors call for more qualitative and quantitative studies that will permit a validation and a deepening of our field of knowledge concerning the integration of project teams in the context of international collaboration.
Paradis, J., Gauthier, J.B. et Hério, R. (2015, Avril).  La pratique de la gestion de la pharmacie sous la loupe des théories des organisations.  Affiche présentée au Congrès de l’APES, Québec, Canada.

Abstract of The practice of pharmacy management examined in the light of theories of organization (in french - no translations available):

In the field of Management, the evolution of organization theories impacts the transformation of management practices. Even though management is an important area within the health care system, few people stop to reflect upon the influence of organization theories on management practices in a clinical setting, particularly in the context of a pharmacy department.  Our work, whose objective was to analyze management practices in hospital pharmacies with the aid of a socio-historical framework developed from organization theories, initially consisted of building an analytical framework integrating the perspectives of authors on organization theories who are exemplary in the field of Management (Séguin Chanlat, Rouleau and Hatch). Starting from this framework, we proceed to socio-historically situate management practices in hospital pharmacies, with the history of the Quebec health care system as our backdrop. The whole is supported by examples taken from a summary of writings from the Canadian Journal of Hospital Pharmacy. Our findings indicate that management practice in hospital pharmacies is situated at the beginning of the modern perspective on organization theory, and at the same time adopts a formal structure that is orchestrated within a predominantly economic environment. The quest for efficiency is carried out through the production of normative structures and knowledge. Hospital pharmacy must, if it is to adapt to various reforms and especially if it is to hold its own in the face of other health services professions, review its management styles and adopt a language that is appropriate to the power competition that is taking place at present.
Harbour, M. & Gauthier, J. B. (2014, Juin).  Polysemy and reflexivity: Revisiting the research design. Full paper and presentation - EURAM2014 - Research Methods & Research Practice, Valence, Espagne.

Abstract:
Although it has been the subject of a certain interest in social sciences, polysemy is often overlooked in management science, where research relies on positivist traditions. These traditions continue to influence researchers regardless of the epistemological and methodological approaches they follow; this in turn has an impact on the way they approach polysemic terms. However, more recently, some researchers have expressed interest in reflexive methods, derived mainly from sociology. Our objective is to revisit existing research designs, integrating a reflexive approach structured around eight topics of reflection, in order to explore the various aspects of polysemic terms which abound in management. By doing so, we bring three major contributions: presenting polysemy and underlining its omnipresence in management; identifying four research issues and a meta-issue related to polysemy in management; and adapting and operationalizing a reflexive research method with a view to addressing these issues.
Afzal, A. & Gauthier, J.B. (2014, May).  Clinical Project of the Ministry of Health and Social Services in Quebec - Current status 10 years after initiation.  Poster session presented at the meeting of CAHSPR, Toronto, Canada.

Abstract :
This presentation explores how the body of knowledge produced by project Management (PMI) can be leveraged to help the Quebec Government attain its strategic health care objectives (accessibility, continuity, quality) while striving to ensure effectiveness and efficiency in the Quebec health care system.
Hério, R., Gauthier, J.B. et Paradis, J.  (2013, Mai). Étude de la structuration de la pharmacie hospitalière comme condition au management d’un projet de changement organisationnel. Résumé et communication présentée au 81e Congrès de l’ACFAS, Québec, Canada.

Abstract of A Study of the structuring of the hospital pharmacy as a condition of the management of an organizational change project (in french - no translations available):

Within our health care system, organizational change still often consists of introducing management models that are in vogue without achieving an in-depth understanding of practices currently in place, and without recognizing their diversity. While studies are currently focusing on the work of doctors and nurses, the same focus has not been brought on hospital pharmacies, or on the organisational implications of the changes such pharmacies are currently undergoing. The few works on this subject, which reproduce the classic dichotomy between functionalism and interpretavism, are a telling indicator of the low level of interest in the study of hospital pharmacies. In order to fill this gap and to go beyond this dualism, we propose an analysis based on the theory of patterning which will make evident the reciprocal relationship that exists between actions and organizational or institutional structures. The empirical material to be used was collected through observations and interviews with the pharmacy in a regional hospital. Analysis of the interactions between staff involved with the pharmacy underlines its regional nature, which is to say that the interactions are based on local rules and resources. We also illustrate the process by which these rules are reproduced and eventually transformed. Finally, we conclude by examining the importance of these results for the implementation of a project involving the delegation of pharmaceutical responsibilities within this pharmacy, which is the focus of subsequent research.
Iucru, E. et  Gauthier, J.B.  (2013, Mai). Hypermodernité et pratiques en gestion de projet. Résumé et communication présentée au 81e Congrès de l’ACFAS, Québec, Canada.

Abstract of Hypermodernity and Practices in Project Management (in french - English translations available):

The tenets of the Making Project Critical approach are related to the modern character of project management (a mechanical, instrumental and normative approach) and focus more particularly on the Project Management Institute (PMI) and its leading publication, the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBoK) – the reference work for best practices in project management. Modernism has been succeeded by a series of societal worlds. Certain authors hold that the latest in the list of societal worlds is the hyper modernist ideal-type. If modernism has indeed been abundantly condemned by the tenets of the critical approach in project management, are we to conclude that the PMI remains a stronghold of modernism that continues to resist hyper modernism? Are we to conclude that the PMBoK, though it is updated every four years, remains structured around modernist principles, all the while ignoring the principles that make up the hyper modernist ideal-type? Our Paper sets out the results of a documentary analysis of the latest edition of the PMBoK, in order to highlight those forms of project management knowledge and practice that have been shaped by hyper modernist principles. From this starting point, we will sketch out some of the major conditions for hyper modernist project management.
Gauthier, J. B. & Ika, L.  (2011, June). Foundations of the Expanding Domain of Project Management Research : An Explicit and Six-Facet Ontological Framework.  Full paper and presentation - IRNOP Research conference, Montréal, Québec.

Abstract :
Despite the search for a strong theoretical basis for Project Management (PM) research, little has been written on ontology. As well, the extant ontological question in PM has focused on the realist and ‘being’ perspectives and more recently on the ‘becoming’ ontology. This paper proposes a new and integrated ontological framework to stimulate PM research. It suggests that the ontological question in PM should be regarded as a complex object/subject like a six-facet diamond that represents a set of root assumptions about projects. This paper conveys the idea that whenever a PM researcher emphasizes a specific facet, she knowingly or unknowingly leaves the other five facets in the dark in her research. This paper calls for a focus of attention on the ground ontological assumptions of PM research in order to transcend the abstract epistemological and methodological debate and concentrate on what really divides the different theoretical positions.
Gauthier, J. B. et St-Pierre, M.  (2011).  Les conditions de succès des projets dans le secteur de la santé : l’intégration nécessaire des équipes de projet.  Article long et communication - 1er Congrès International en management et en gestion de projet, Gatineau : UQO.

Abstract of  Conditions for Success of Health Sector Projects: the Need to Integrate Project Teams (in french - no translations available):

Over the years, projects have become one of the preferred approaches to implementing organizational change (Kloppenborg & Opfer, 2002; Kwak & Anbari, 2009; Pellegrinelli, 2011). The Quebec health care system, no exception to this trend, has made use of clinical projects to improve primary care (Ministère de la Santé et des Services Sociaux, 2004).   Today, many authors agree that interdisciplinary or inter-organizational links must be considered a primary condition for project performance (Emmitt, 2010, Koutsikouri, Austin and Dainty, 2008). In this regard, Baiden et Price (2006, 2011) indicate that such links serve to remind us of the concept of integration of project teams: “Project team integration can be defined as where different disciplines or organizations with different goals, needs and cultures merge into a single cohesive and mutually supporting unit with collaborative alignment of processes and cultures (…)” (Baiden et al., 2006 p. 128). Because the completion of the clinical project depends on the inter-organizational and interdisciplinary teams upon which it is founded, this concept fits well into the present-day problematics of project management.  In order to bring about the desired integration, many measures have already been adopted in the health care system. Financial incentives, preferential access to certain resources, and an improvement of available information are some of the most frequently-used levers. However, little has been said about the social dynamic identified by Baiden and Price (2006, 2011) in the course of which groups of actors in one project team who have differentiated practices, both at the organizational and disciplinary levels, succeed in linking their respective practices to attain a common finality. This is the purpose of our Paper. By simultaneously taking  into account  the realities experienced by groups of actors in the clinical project, in the health services to be established, and in the underlying structures, focusing all the while on overall coherence, we have explored the conditions required for project team integration. In this way, three dynamic conditions came to light: the needs of the group of actors who make up the clinical project team, the response to these needs, and the recurrence of satisfying interchanges.  A need arises whenever any group of actors becomes aware that there are limits to their capacity for actions needed to take a project activity in a desired direction. The group therefore needs to acquire resources or to adopt certain rules that it does not already have, but which can be accessed through its interaction with the other groups. This is the starting point and the first condition for the integration of a project team. Once the needs of the groups of actors have been detected, management of a clinical project requires us to understand what favors and what hampers possible integration of the project team based upon knowledge, know-how and power.  Before we can determine if the interactions can evolve into common activities, we must first consider how each group of actors in a project team evaluates the possible ways of responding to its needs, and then whether the ensuing response is satisfactory or not.  Finally, the needs of each group of actors must be repeatedly satisfied in order for the integration of the project team to take place. Making meetings a routine feature therefore allows permanent bridges to be established between dissimilar groups of actors. These three conditions are the starting point that allows clinical projects to become successful and sustainable.  A clinical project will remain an unfulfilled wish unless we have a knowledge of the needs of the groups of actors in relation to specific goals to be attained, of their differentiated abilities to act, as well as a knowledge of the context in which the project’s activities are taking place, and also, unless there is a satisfactory response to these needs, and unless repeated interchanges are undertaken so that the benefits of a solution can continue to be felt. The case of a particular clinical project in Quebec’s Outaouais region, allows us to illustrate our position.
Hério, R. et Gauthier, J. B. (2011).  Les figures du projet dans le système de santé du Québec (1967-2008) : un défi à relever pour la politique des projets cliniques ? Papier long et communication - 1er Congrès International en management et en gestion de projet, Gatineau : UQO.

Abstract of  Images of Projects in the Quebec Health Care System (1967-2008): a challenge for the Clinical Projects  Policy? (in french - no translations available):

The most recent organizational policy in the Quebec Health Care System is structured around the notion of projects. Nonetheless, the implementation of these clinical projects is not simply a matter of project management, but also requires us to examine how the project participants perceive the concept.  In fact, we here demonstrate that in the evolution of the Quebec Health Care System between 1967 and 2008, the idea of a project has taken on a wide variety of perceived significances. Today, the overlay of these perceptions can lead the participants in a clinical project to have different expectations concerning their organizational modalities. The implications of this situation are described in terms of the challenge they pose when researching project-based organization in the health care system.
Boisseau, J. F. et Gauthier, J.-B.  (2010, Mai).  Reconsidération de la pratique de la pharmacie communautaire à partir de la théorie de la structuration. Résumé et communication - 78e Congrès de l’ACFAS, Montréal, Canada.

Abstract of Reconsideration of the practice of community pharmacy from the theory of structuration (in french - no translations available):

To date, sociological analysis of the practice of pharmacy has placed the emphasis on either structure or agency. Seeking to move beyond this dualism which offers a partial understanding of the everyday practice of pharmacy, we propose using the structuration theory of Anthony Giddens. Using interviews with and observations of agents in the laboratory of a community pharmacy located in Quebec, we first of all reconstruct: (1) its “regionalized” locales, as an a priori to any interaction; (2) a typology of the different agents co-located in the said locales; (3) the everyday pharmacy practice of the said agents. Following this reconstruction, we demonstrate that certain types of agents more often frequent certain areas of the laboratory, as co-present contextualities, where they proceed to appraise and to methodize specific rules and resources. Using these, which act as conditions and constraints upon the daily interactions that they wish to undertake, agents will reproduce both the structural properties of the social system and of the history of the pharmacy, as well as certain elements from their own personalities. This duality reveals a recursive social practice. Finally, we will discuss the theory of structuration as a substitute for the concept that still views health care as a social function extrinsic to the agents who practice it.
Gauthier, J.-B. et St-Pierre, M.  (2009, Mai).  Les projets cliniques et organisationnels au sein des RLS de santé : Qu’en est-il de leur gestion ?  Résumé et communication - 77e Congrès de l’ACFAS, Ottawa, Canada.

Abstract of Clinical and Organizational Projects within Health RLS (local service networks). What of their Management? (in french - no translations available):

Quebec has made use of RLS (local service networks) in order to make health services more accessible, better coordinated and continuous. This is the case in the Outaouais Region, which is in the process of consolidating its RLS by through the establishment of clinical projects. In this context, there has arisen a “network-clinic” that is the result of partnership between the Aylmer Health Coop (AHC) Centre de santé et de services sociaux de Gatineau (CSSSG) (health and social services centre of Gatineau). Although a common interest in improving front-line services may be present right from the beginning, everything remains to be done when it comes to setting up a functional interface. It is a known fact that projects must be founded upon a shared vision concerning the care activities to be developed or consolidated, and concerning the actions to be undertaken to respond to the needs of the population. This vision must, first of all, arise within the team responsible for managing the project. From the outset, there are multiple challenges that depend on the ability of team members to integrate their interdisciplinary and inter-organizational practices. Our Paper deals with this issue through an exploration of project-structuring by the project-team of the AHC and of the CSSSG, in a region where needs are great. Furthermore, this study of networking between a health co-operative and a public establishment is more or less unprecedented, and can help enrich our knowledge and our practices in improving the health-care system.
Ndengeyingoma, A. Lapierre, J., Girard, N., Coulombe, G., de Montigny, F., Major, F., Verdon, C., Lévesque, M., Gauthier, J.-B., Mass, D., Saint-Pierre, C., Lazure, G., Santos da Silva, M., Letaief, A. et Cabarrocas, M.-T. (2009, Juin). Transformation des pratiques pour répondre aux défis de l’heure en soins infirmiers : Perspectives du Brésil, de la Tunisie, de Maurice, de l‘Espagne et du Québec.  Communication présentée au 4e Congrès mondial des infirmières et infirmiers, Secrétariat international des infirmières et infirmiers de la francophonie, Marrakech, Maroc.

Abstract of Transforming Practices to Respond to Current Challenges in Nursing Care: Perspectives from Brazil, Tunisia, Mauritius, Spain and Quebec (in french - no translations available):

GIRESS (Le groupe interdisciplinaire de recherche – an interdisciplinary research group) and its Laurentian and Outaouais partners offer a descriptive, comparative synthesis of international perspectives (Brazil, Tunisia, Spain, Mauritius, Canada) as presented at the Université du Québec in April 2009, at a colloquium on transforming nursing practices to respond to current challenges.
St-Pierre, M. et Gauthier, J.-B.  (2008). Le lien entre dispositifs de médiation techniques et symboliques : un cadre d’analyse intégrateur.  Article long et communication - Colloque en SIC, Nice, France.

Abstract of The link between technical and symbolic mediation devices: an integrative analysis framework (in french - no translations available):

In the health sector, networked approaches are advocated to address issues of coordination and continuity of care. These approaches aim to define organizational modalities that, among other things, improve communication between different healthcare providers. This way of approching things is particularly prevalent in two major sectors of activity: public health and clinical health. However, it appears that communication between actors in these two sectors is often difficult, given the lack of knowledge of each, the lack of willingness to adapt practices to the requirements of the interface or inconsistent modalities organization. The article presents the results of the theoretical work on the structuring of the interface between public health and clinical health in order to provide conceptual tools capable of apprehending and analyzing the dynamics of the constitution of interfaces in organizations.
Hério, R. et Gauthier, J.-B. (2008, Mai).  Opportunités et contraintes d’un projet innovant dans un centre hospitalier communautaire : une approche par la théorie de la structuration.  Résumé et communication - 76e Congrès de l’ACFAS, Québec, Canada.

Abstract of Opportunities and Constraints in an Innovating Project in a Community Hospital Centre: an Approach Based on Structuration Theory (in french - no translations available):

Health systems display not only national diversity but also local disparities. Thus, the principle of regionalization built into the Quebec system forces one to deal with the unequal distribution of training and research centers where scientific advances take place. In contrast to those organizations in which there is a culture favoring projects and innovation, the bureaucracy present in community hospitals seems to limit local initiatives. Nonetheless, some of these establishments have given rise to technical innovations. Knowing how these projects are organized would allow us to encourage these projects to multiply and to improve the overall quality of care. In order to study such initiatives, however, we cannot avail ourselves of traditional Project Management that presupposes formal practices, participation by professionals from the discipline, and an organizational structure in tune with PM principles. We illustrate in this Paper that an analysis framework based on Structuring Theory will, on the other hand, allow us to track the implementation of such projects. We also demonstrate how the application of this analysis framework to a case study involving introduction of a new treatment in a community hospital allows us to identify the rules constraining this initiative, the resources that facilitate it, and the strategies that are put in place by the change agents to overcome the hurdles they encounter. By way of conclusion, we envision applying the results of this research to networking projects undertaken by actors in the health care system.
St-Pierre, M., Sévigny, A., Gauthier, J.-B., Tourigny, A. et Dallaire, C. (2008, Mai). Une nouvelle approche pour la gestion de l’intégration dans le système de santé : le cas des bénévoles et des professionnels.  Communication présentée le cadre du Congrès organisé par le Laboratoire de Santé Publique (Université de la Méditerranée) et le Laboratoire CEMM (Euromed Marseille Ecole de Management) sur le thème de la dépendance/le vieillissement : quelles nouvelles frontières de conception, de coordination et de régulation ?

Abstract of  A New Approach to Managing Integration in the Health-Care System: the Case of Volunteers and Professionals (in french - no translations available):

This Paper deals with the challenges faced by managers in the Quebec public health and social services network when seeking to integrate volunteers who are called upon to work with professionals in establishments involved at the level of home care to aged persons with declining independence. The collaboration of volunteers and professionals is increasingly desirable, if we are to meet the various needs of seniors living at home. Yet, we are still seeing over-utilization or under-utilization of volunteers, as well as difficulties integrating them into the teams involved in care and participation in service plans. In the context of service networks, the challenge of harmonizing volunteer and professional practices must be faced by any manager who wants to maximize volunteer participation, in order to achieve greater efficiency in actuating the mission to provide home support. Integration is therefore considered as a phenomenon that can be developed according to context, above and beyond simply taking into account the allocation and distribution of resources as well as the application of structural reforms. Because this involves going beyond the instrumental and bureaucratic views of the manager’s role, and dealing with the complexity and paradoxes of the health system, and relations between interveners, we have here emphasized understanding the actions of professionals and volunteers from the vantage point of Structuration Theory. In this regard, we have demonstrated the conditions upon which integration depends. It would therefore appear that one must consider the dynamic created by the interplay between characteristics, contextual conditions that structure interactions, and the abilities of the actors, which then allows one to define certain dispositions to act that will be preconditions determining whether integration will succeed or not. Managers therefore have no choice but to understand this integration dynamic and to build upon it in seeking to reach the goals of their organization.
St-Pierre M., Gauthier, J.-B. et Reinharz, D. (2007). L’intégration organisationnelle et sa dynamique de production, d’actualisation et de reproduction. Article long et communication - Journée de recherche sur la « Socialisation Organisationnelle » (CREPA Université Dauphine), France, Paris.

Abstract of Organizational Integration and its Production, Actualization and Reproduction Dynamics (in french - no translations available):

In the health sector, network approaches are increasingly encouraged so that health services may be delivered in a more integrated manner, in order to better meet the growing needs various publics. These approaches seek to define some new organizational modalities that build closer ties between different care and service providers. To this end, reforms are now based upon a change from traditional functional structures to process-based structures (Noordegraaf et al., 2005; Lega and DePietro, 2005). Following this orientation, logic based on hierarchy and authority is replaced by logic that stresses, on the one hand, resource integration and an accent on the patient, and, on the other hand, clinical integration and clinician involvement (Lega et DePietro, 2005). Viewed in this light, integration requires the establishment of a transversal dynamic for exchange and intervention practices, which operates between service structures in a context where one uses complex systems that are intra- and interdisciplinary, as well as intra- and interorganizational. To capture this dynamic it is necessary to go beyond those normative visions that increasingly encourage us to implant more organizational models and to evaluate their results without necessarily putting into perspective those bases upon which the actors, the disciplines and the organizational structures achieve interaction. This is the issue addressed by this Paper. It involves proposing an analytical framework which will allows a greater possibility of finding organizational solutions by reconciling the logic of organizational constraint to which the actors are subject, and the logic of the actors themselves. Because Anthony Giddens’ Structuration Theory (1971, 1979, and 1984) allows us to effect such reconciliation, this theory serves as a starting point for the study. In the first part of the Paper, we identify the place integration occupies in the health care sector and the benefits of examining it in light of Structuration Theory, and in the second part, we briefly present the methodological research framework. Following this, we deal with the proposed analytical framework and then, in conclusion, we elaborate upon follow-up actions required by the theoretical architecture that has been erected.
Mayrand Leclerc, M., Gauthier, J.-B. et Le Beau, G. (2007, Novembre). Quand l'avenir repose sur des changements organisationnels: mesurer le niveau d'intégration des nouveaux rôles et responsabilités des gestionnaires de soins et de services cliniques. Communication présentée au 87e Congrès annuel de l'Ordre des infirmières et infirmiers du Québec (OIIQ), Montréal, Canada.

Abstract of When the future depends on organizational changes: measuring levels of integration of the new roles and responsibilities of care and clinical service managers (in french - no translations available):

Health establishments, located at the heart of an actively evolving Quebec health care system, seize opportunities to create new structures, thus modifying our perspectives on care and service coordination. Their realizations force us to revisit operational structures and methods, especially regarding professional clinical practice and management of the new clinical project in the regional networks. With these modifications, it becomes necessary to revise and implement new managerial roles and responsibilities in clinical care and services, such as the roles of Chief Nurse, and of Coordinator and Asssistant Director of nursing care. But how can one measure the level of integration achieved and the issues involved? One year after implementation of a new clinical organization model, the authors of this workshop were mandated to measure the degree to which roles had been appropriated, and to propose a follow-up plan. The frame of reference, inspired by the strategic management model of Tichy (1991), will be presented, as well as the data collection methods. The results, derived from analyses of interview content and from focussed discussion groups, will be discussed in the light of structurationist trends. The tools and the results presented will serve to inspire all managers who are trying to better understand and to give impetus to the integration of new roles that result from new models of clinical organization in health establishments.
Gauthier, J.-B. et Rancourt, F. (1993, Mai).  Annonce d'un changement, anxiété situationnelle et traits de la personnalité : une étude exploratoire.  Résumé et communication - au 61e Congrès de l’ACFAS, Rimouski, Canada.

Abstract of  Change Announcements, Situational Anxiety and Personality Traits: an Exploratory Study (in french - no translations available):

For several years now, project managers have taken into consideration the impact that opposing forces, such as resistance to organizational change, can have upon the success of a project. In order to adequately manage these forces then, managers must be able to understand the set of mechanisms that underlie such attitudes towards a change-oriented project. Using a conceptual model inspired by systematic, strategic, cognitive-behaviourist and psychoanalytical approaches, we established a quasi-experimental research protocol in order to study the psychological foundations of this model and to determine whether certain individual factors (sex, age and personality) might be an integral part of the explanation for the feelings that people experience when facing a change-oriented project. Data were collected over a 49-day period. In the initial phase we measured, with the help of IASTA (form X), the anxiety level exhibited in a neutral situation (no anxiety-producing events). On the 35th day, we used the IPJ to measure personality traits. Finally, on the 49th day, the subjects (n=120, 50 men and 70 women between the ages of 19 and 48) were confronted with two situation scenarios: “projected into a vacation situation” and “projected into a situation in which a change project is announced” and were then asked to describe the various feelings they experienced using IASTA (form Y). The first hypothesis, one of the basic fundamentals of the conceptual model for resistance to organizational change, was confirmed: when confronted with the announcement of a change project, individuals experienced an increase in their anxiety levels. The second and third hypotheses were refuted. In fact, variations in the variable factors of sex and age and/or interactions between sex and age variables do not appear to explain part of the variability in the stress levels expressed when the change project was announced. Finally, our fourth hypothesis was verified: certain groups of personality traits seem to explain, in part, the levels of anxiety expressed when a change project is announced.